Lahore suffers from a combination of industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, and burning of agricultural waste, leading to dangerously high levels of PM2.5 particulate matter.
Located in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Hotan faces severe dust storms and sandstorms that contribute to its high PM2.5 levels.
Delhi's dense population, heavy reliance on vehicles, and burning of crops result in chronic air pollution, making it a regular contender for the title of most polluted city globally.
Dhaka's traffic congestion, brick kilns, and industrial emissions make it a city shrouded in smog, with PM2.5 levels often exceeding safe limits.
The capital of Mongolia experiences extreme temperature variations, leading to the burning of coal for heating during harsh winters, significantly impacting air quality.
Similar to Lahore, Karachi grapples with industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, and agricultural waste burning, making it a city with consistently high PM2.5 levels.
Cairo's dense traffic, industrial activity, and sandstorms from nearby deserts contribute to its air pollution woes, posing health risks to residents.
Another Indian city on the list, Kolkata's reliance on coal for power generation and heavy traffic volume contribute to its high PM2.5 levels, making it a challenging place to breathe.
Indonesia's capital Jakarta struggles with vehicle emissions, industrial activity, and open burning, leading to a thick haze of air pollution that often blankets the city.
Beirut's air quality suffers from a combination of factors, including traffic congestion, industrial emissions, and the ongoing waste management crisis, impacting the health of its residents.