Arunachal Pradesh, the largest northeastern state is known as the "Land of Dawn-Lit Mountains." It was granted statehood on February 20, 1987. Arunachal Pradesh shares a southern border with the states of Assam and Nagaland, a disputed border with China along the McMahon Line in the north, and international borders with Bhutan and Myanmar in the west and east, respectively. The India Census of 2011 reveals that Arunachal Pradesh is inhabited by 1,382,611 people in an area of 83,743 square kilometers. It has a rich and diverse population, with the Monpa in the west, Tanis in the center, Mishmis and Tais in the east, and Nagas in the southeast being the majority ethnic groups. The state is home to around 26 prominent tribes and 100 minor tribes, including the Adi, Nyshi, Singpho, Galo, Tagin, Apatani, and others. Here are the State Symbols of Arunachal Pradesh.
The Mithun, or Bos Frontalis, is recognized as the state animal of Arunachal Pradesh, but can also be found grazing in other northeastern states. The local tribal population regards ownership of Mithun as a symbol of prosperity and status. Farmers mainly rear Mithun for meat, which is commonly served at marriage functions and community feasts. Additionally, Mithun is also given as a bride price and used as compensation in legal verdicts.
The Great Hornbill, also known as Buceros bicornis, is a member of the hornbill family found in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Its impressive size and coloration have made it significant in many tribal cultures and rituals. With a lifespan of up to 50 years in captivity, the Great Hornbill is predominantly a fruit eater but will also hunt small mammals, reptiles, and birds as opportunistic predators.
In the emblem of Arunachal Pradesh, a Mithun bison stands with the peaks of Komdi and Daphabum rising behind it and the sun rising in between them. The emblem is supported by two hornbills and features the crest of the Indian flag. This emblem represents the state, whose name, meaning "Land of Dawn-Lit Mountains," is alluded to by the mountains and sunrise depicted in the emblem. The Mithun bison and hornbill are the official state animals and birds, respectively.
The foxtail orchid, also known as Rhynchostylis retusa, is a type of orchid that belongs to the Vanda group. Its inflorescence is a hanging cluster of over 100 flowers that are white with pink spots. The plant has a sturdy, crawling stem with up to 12 curved, fleshy leaves that are deeply channeled and pointed at the tip. It flowers in the winter and early spring on a densely flowered, cylindrical inflorescence that can reach up to 60 cm in length.
Dipterocarpus retusus, which is commonly referred to as hollong, is a well-known species within the Dipterocarpus genus, and is a large tree found in various countries across Southeast Asia, including China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar, and India. This tall tree can reach up to 20-30 meters (70-100 feet) in height and grows in dense forests, hillsides, and along rivers at altitudes ranging between 800 and 1500 meters (2600 and 5000 feet). In Vietnam, a related species called Dipterocarpus macrocarpus is the State Tree of Assam in India. Hollong is a valuable timber tree with a medium hardness that naturally grows in the upper Assam and Arunachal Pradesh forests. It is also considered a sacred tree by the Moran community in Assam, and is currently utilized in the plywood industry.