Nagaland, which is located in north-eastern India, borders Arunachal Pradesh to the north, Assam to the west, Manipur to the south, and the Sagaing Region of Myanmar to the east. According to the 2011 Census of India, Nagaland is one of the smallest states in India, with a land area of 16,579 square kilometers and a population of 1,980,602 people. Despite this, the state is thriving, with agriculture serving as the foundation and accounting for about 70% of its GDP. In addition to agriculture, the state's economy also focuses on forestry, tourism, real estate, insurance, and various small businesses. Nagaland's flora and fauna are equally remarkable, characterized by a wide range of species. Dimapur serves as its primary city, while Kohima acts as the state's capital. Here's the list of state symbols of Nagaland.
Merimvu Doulo, an indigenous artist, came up with Nagaland's state emblem, which was approved in August 2005. Nagaland's emblem is a circular seal with the words "Government of Nagaland" and the state motto "Unity" surrounding a picture of a Mithun bison standing in a green hilly landscape.
The Drung ox, commonly referred to as the gayal (Bos frontalis), is a massive domesticated bovine species. Despite its enormity, the gayal is a bit shorter at the withers than its counterparts, and its limbs are relatively shorter as well. Bulls are known to have a wider dewlap on their throat, and their back ridge is not as developed as other bovine species. The gayal boasts a compact, well-proportioned head with a perfectly flat forehead and straight line linking the horn bases. Its horns are not as curved and flattened as those of the gaur, but stretch almost straight out from the sides of the head, with a slight curl upwards at the tips, positioned further apart compared to the gaur. Female gayals are substantially smaller than their male counterparts, and their throat dewlap is negligible. Both sexes feature blackish-brown skin on their heads and bodies, with white or yellowish skin on their lower limbs. The horns retain a consistent blackish hue from base to tip.
The grey-bellied tragopan, also called the Blyth's tragopan (Tragopan blythii), is an endangered pheasant species named after Edward Blyth, a renowned English biologist and former Curator of the Asiatic Society of Bengal's Museum. The Blyth's tragopan is the most sizeable pheasant in the Tragopan genus, with the male species characterized by its vivid, brightly colored appearance. It is recognized by its rust-colored feathers, yellow facial skin, and small white dots on its back known as ocelli. Two black bands, one extending from the bill's base to the crown and the other behind the eyes, further set it apart. During mating season, male tragopans exhibit two light blue horns that protrude from their heads, along with an eye-catching lappet that hangs from their throats and can be extended and displayed. Females, on the other hand, are less flamboyantly colored, with dark brown plumage featuring a mottled pattern of black, buff, and white. This subtler coloring is sufficient for them to attract a mate.
Rhododendron arboreum, also referred to as the tree rhododendron, is a magnificent evergreen shrub or small tree that produces vibrant red flowers. It prefers partially shaded areas and moist, well-drained, acidic soil rich in humus and leaves. The plant has large dark green leaves that measure 7-19 cm in length and feature a silvery, fawn, or brownish hairy underside. It is ideal for incorporating into woodland gardens. The plant's specific epithet suggests that it grows in a tree-like manner or has a tendency to develop a woody texture. While it can grow up to 20 meters tall, it is typically around 12 meters tall and wide. This plant holds the Guinness World Record for the World's Largest Rhododendron. In early and mid-spring, clusters of 15-20 bell-shaped blooms, measuring 5 cm wide and 3-5 cm long, in shades of red, pink, or white, bloom. The blooms feature black nectar pouches on the outside and black dots on the inside, adding to their allure.
In the highlands of the Himalayan subtropics, there exists a large alder tree called Alnus nepalensis, which serves various purposes like land reclamation, fuel, and charcoal production. Alnus nepalensis is a massive deciduous tree with silver-gray bark that can reach up to 30 meters in height and 60 meters in width. Its leaves, which are 7-16 cm long and 5-10 cm wide, are arranged alternately and have visible veins that are parallel to each other, and they are shallowly serrated. The tree produces male and female flowers on the same tree in catkins, with male blooms hanging down and reaching 10 to 25 cm long, while female flowers, arranged in clusters of up to eight, are 1 to 2 cm tall and found in axillary racemes. Interestingly, its seeds mature in the following year, which is not common for alder trees.